Sequence counters and sequential locks

Introduction

Sequence counters are a reader-writer consistency mechanism with lockless readers (read-only retry loops), and no writer starvation. They are used for data that’s rarely written to (e.g. system time), where the reader wants a consistent set of information and is willing to retry if that information changes.

A data set is consistent when the sequence count at the beginning of the read side critical section is even and the same sequence count value is read again at the end of the critical section. The data in the set must be copied out inside the read side critical section. If the sequence count has changed between the start and the end of the critical section, the reader must retry.

Writers increment the sequence count at the start and the end of their critical section. After starting the critical section the sequence count is odd and indicates to the readers that an update is in progress. At the end of the write side critical section the sequence count becomes even again which lets readers make progress.

A sequence counter write side critical section must never be preempted or interrupted by read side sections. Otherwise the reader will spin for the entire scheduler tick due to the odd sequence count value and the interrupted writer. If that reader belongs to a real-time scheduling class, it can spin forever and the kernel will livelock.

This mechanism cannot be used if the protected data contains pointers, as the writer can invalidate a pointer that the reader is following.

Sequence counters (seqcount_t)

This is the the raw counting mechanism, which does not protect against multiple writers. Write side critical sections must thus be serialized by an external lock.

If the write serialization primitive is not implicitly disabling preemption, preemption must be explicitly disabled before entering the write side section. If the read section can be invoked from hardirq or softirq contexts, interrupts or bottom halves must also be respectively disabled before entering the write section.

If it’s desired to automatically handle the sequence counter requirements of writer serialization and non-preemptibility, use Sequential locks (seqlock_t) instead.

Initialization:

/* dynamic */
seqcount_t foo_seqcount;
seqcount_init(&foo_seqcount);

/* static */
static seqcount_t foo_seqcount = SEQCNT_ZERO(foo_seqcount);

/* C99 struct init */
struct {
        .seq   = SEQCNT_ZERO(foo.seq),
} foo;

Write path:

/* Serialized context with disabled preemption */

write_seqcount_begin(&foo_seqcount);

/* ... [[write-side critical section]] ... */

write_seqcount_end(&foo_seqcount);

Read path:

do {
        seq = read_seqcount_begin(&foo_seqcount);

        /* ... [[read-side critical section]] ... */

} while (read_seqcount_retry(&foo_seqcount, seq));

Sequence counters with associated locks (seqcount_LOCKNAME_t)

As discussed at Sequence counters (seqcount_t), sequence count write side critical sections must be serialized and non-preemptible. This variant of sequence counters associate the lock used for writer serialization at initialization time, which enables lockdep to validate that the write side critical sections are properly serialized.

This lock association is a NOOP if lockdep is disabled and has neither storage nor runtime overhead. If lockdep is enabled, the lock pointer is stored in struct seqcount and lockdep’s “lock is held” assertions are injected at the beginning of the write side critical section to validate that it is properly protected.

For lock types which do not implicitly disable preemption, preemption protection is enforced in the write side function.

The following sequence counters with associated locks are defined:

  • seqcount_spinlock_t

  • seqcount_raw_spinlock_t

  • seqcount_rwlock_t

  • seqcount_mutex_t

  • seqcount_ww_mutex_t

The sequence counter read and write APIs can take either a plain seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants above.

Initialization (replace “LOCKNAME” with one of the supported locks):

/* dynamic */
seqcount_LOCKNAME_t foo_seqcount;
seqcount_LOCKNAME_init(&foo_seqcount, &lock);

/* static */
static seqcount_LOCKNAME_t foo_seqcount =
        SEQCNT_LOCKNAME_ZERO(foo_seqcount, &lock);

/* C99 struct init */
struct {
        .seq   = SEQCNT_LOCKNAME_ZERO(foo.seq, &lock),
} foo;

Write path: same as in Sequence counters (seqcount_t), while running from a context with the associated write serialization lock acquired.

Read path: same as in Sequence counters (seqcount_t).

Latch sequence counters (seqcount_latch_t)

Latch sequence counters are a multiversion concurrency control mechanism where the embedded seqcount_t counter even/odd value is used to switch between two copies of protected data. This allows the sequence counter read path to safely interrupt its own write side critical section.

Use seqcount_latch_t when the write side sections cannot be protected from interruption by readers. This is typically the case when the read side can be invoked from NMI handlers.

Check raw_write_seqcount_latch() for more information.

Sequential locks (seqlock_t)

This contains the Sequence counters (seqcount_t) mechanism earlier discussed, plus an embedded spinlock for writer serialization and non-preemptibility.

If the read side section can be invoked from hardirq or softirq context, use the write side function variants which disable interrupts or bottom halves respectively.

Initialization:

/* dynamic */
seqlock_t foo_seqlock;
seqlock_init(&foo_seqlock);

/* static */
static DEFINE_SEQLOCK(foo_seqlock);

/* C99 struct init */
struct {
        .seql   = __SEQLOCK_UNLOCKED(foo.seql)
} foo;

Write path:

write_seqlock(&foo_seqlock);

/* ... [[write-side critical section]] ... */

write_sequnlock(&foo_seqlock);

Read path, three categories:

  1. Normal Sequence readers which never block a writer but they must retry if a writer is in progress by detecting change in the sequence number. Writers do not wait for a sequence reader:

    do {
            seq = read_seqbegin(&foo_seqlock);
    
            /* ... [[read-side critical section]] ... */
    
    } while (read_seqretry(&foo_seqlock, seq));
    
  2. Locking readers which will wait if a writer or another locking reader is in progress. A locking reader in progress will also block a writer from entering its critical section. This read lock is exclusive. Unlike rwlock_t, only one locking reader can acquire it:

    read_seqlock_excl(&foo_seqlock);
    
    /* ... [[read-side critical section]] ... */
    
    read_sequnlock_excl(&foo_seqlock);
    
  3. Conditional lockless reader (as in 1), or locking reader (as in 2), according to a passed marker. This is used to avoid lockless readers starvation (too much retry loops) in case of a sharp spike in write activity. First, a lockless read is tried (even marker passed). If that trial fails (odd sequence counter is returned, which is used as the next iteration marker), the lockless read is transformed to a full locking read and no retry loop is necessary:

    /* marker; even initialization */
    int seq = 0;
    do {
            read_seqbegin_or_lock(&foo_seqlock, &seq);
    
            /* ... [[read-side critical section]] ... */
    
    } while (need_seqretry(&foo_seqlock, seq));
    done_seqretry(&foo_seqlock, seq);
    

API documentation

seqcount_init

seqcount_init (s)

runtime initializer for seqcount_t

Parameters

s

Pointer to the seqcount_t instance

SEQCNT_ZERO

SEQCNT_ZERO (name)

static initializer for seqcount_t

Parameters

name

Name of the seqcount_t instance

__read_seqcount_begin

__read_seqcount_begin (s)

begin a seqcount_t read section w/o barrier

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

Description

__read_seqcount_begin is like read_seqcount_begin, but has no smp_rmb() barrier. Callers should ensure that smp_rmb() or equivalent ordering is provided before actually loading any of the variables that are to be protected in this critical section.

Use carefully, only in critical code, and comment how the barrier is provided.

Return

count to be passed to read_seqcount_retry()

raw_read_seqcount_begin

raw_read_seqcount_begin (s)

begin a seqcount_t read section w/o lockdep

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

Return

count to be passed to read_seqcount_retry()

read_seqcount_begin

read_seqcount_begin (s)

begin a seqcount_t read critical section

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

Return

count to be passed to read_seqcount_retry()

raw_read_seqcount

raw_read_seqcount (s)

read the raw seqcount_t counter value

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

Description

raw_read_seqcount opens a read critical section of the given seqcount_t, without any lockdep checking, and without checking or masking the sequence counter LSB. Calling code is responsible for handling that.

Return

count to be passed to read_seqcount_retry()

raw_seqcount_begin

raw_seqcount_begin (s)

begin a seqcount_t read critical section w/o lockdep and w/o counter stabilization

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

Description

raw_seqcount_begin opens a read critical section of the given seqcount_t. Unlike read_seqcount_begin(), this function will not wait for the count to stabilize. If a writer is active when it begins, it will fail the read_seqcount_retry() at the end of the read critical section instead of stabilizing at the beginning of it.

Use this only in special kernel hot paths where the read section is small and has a high probability of success through other external means. It will save a single branching instruction.

Return

count to be passed to read_seqcount_retry()

__read_seqcount_retry

__read_seqcount_retry (s, start)

end a seqcount_t read section w/o barrier

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

start

count, from read_seqcount_begin()

Description

__read_seqcount_retry is like read_seqcount_retry, but has no smp_rmb() barrier. Callers should ensure that smp_rmb() or equivalent ordering is provided before actually loading any of the variables that are to be protected in this critical section.

Use carefully, only in critical code, and comment how the barrier is provided.

Return

true if a read section retry is required, else false

read_seqcount_retry

read_seqcount_retry (s, start)

end a seqcount_t read critical section

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

start

count, from read_seqcount_begin()

Description

read_seqcount_retry closes the read critical section of given seqcount_t. If the critical section was invalid, it must be ignored (and typically retried).

Return

true if a read section retry is required, else false

raw_write_seqcount_begin

raw_write_seqcount_begin (s)

start a seqcount_t write section w/o lockdep

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

Context

check write_seqcount_begin()

raw_write_seqcount_end

raw_write_seqcount_end (s)

end a seqcount_t write section w/o lockdep

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

Context

check write_seqcount_end()

write_seqcount_begin_nested

write_seqcount_begin_nested (s, subclass)

start a seqcount_t write section with custom lockdep nesting level

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

subclass

lockdep nesting level

Description

See Runtime locking correctness validator

Context

check write_seqcount_begin()

write_seqcount_begin

write_seqcount_begin (s)

start a seqcount_t write side critical section

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

Context

sequence counter write side sections must be serialized and non-preemptible. Preemption will be automatically disabled if and only if the seqcount write serialization lock is associated, and preemptible. If readers can be invoked from hardirq or softirq context, interrupts or bottom halves must be respectively disabled.

write_seqcount_end

write_seqcount_end (s)

end a seqcount_t write side critical section

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

Context

Preemption will be automatically re-enabled if and only if the seqcount write serialization lock is associated, and preemptible.

raw_write_seqcount_barrier

raw_write_seqcount_barrier (s)

do a seqcount_t write barrier

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

Description

This can be used to provide an ordering guarantee instead of the usual consistency guarantee. It is one wmb cheaper, because it can collapse the two back-to-back wmb()s.

Note that writes surrounding the barrier should be declared atomic (e.g. via WRITE_ONCE): a) to ensure the writes become visible to other threads atomically, avoiding compiler optimizations; b) to document which writes are meant to propagate to the reader critical section. This is necessary because neither writes before and after the barrier are enclosed in a seq-writer critical section that would ensure readers are aware of ongoing writes:

seqcount_t seq;
bool X = true, Y = false;

void read(void)
{
        bool x, y;

        do {
                int s = read_seqcount_begin(&seq);

                x = X; y = Y;

        } while (read_seqcount_retry(&seq, s));

        BUG_ON(!x && !y);
}

void write(void)
{
        WRITE_ONCE(Y, true);

        raw_write_seqcount_barrier(seq);

        WRITE_ONCE(X, false);
}
write_seqcount_invalidate

write_seqcount_invalidate (s)

invalidate in-progress seqcount_t read side operations

Parameters

s

Pointer to seqcount_t or any of the seqcount_LOCKNAME_t variants

Description

After write_seqcount_invalidate, no seqcount_t read side operations will complete successfully and see data older than this.

SEQCNT_LATCH_ZERO

SEQCNT_LATCH_ZERO (seq_name)

static initializer for seqcount_latch_t

Parameters

seq_name

Name of the seqcount_latch_t instance

void seqcount_latch_init(seqcount_latch_t *s)

runtime initializer for seqcount_latch_t

Parameters

seqcount_latch_t *s

Pointer to the seqcount_latch_t instance

unsigned raw_read_seqcount_latch(const seqcount_latch_t *s)

pick even/odd latch data copy

Parameters

const seqcount_latch_t *s

Pointer to seqcount_latch_t

Description

See raw_write_seqcount_latch() for details and a full reader/writer usage example.

Return

sequence counter raw value. Use the lowest bit as an index for picking which data copy to read. The full counter must then be checked with read_seqcount_latch_retry().

int read_seqcount_latch_retry(const seqcount_latch_t *s, unsigned start)

end a seqcount_latch_t read section

Parameters

const seqcount_latch_t *s

Pointer to seqcount_latch_t

unsigned start

count, from raw_read_seqcount_latch()

Return

true if a read section retry is required, else false

void raw_write_seqcount_latch(seqcount_latch_t *s)

redirect latch readers to even/odd copy

Parameters

seqcount_latch_t *s

Pointer to seqcount_latch_t

Description

The latch technique is a multiversion concurrency control method that allows queries during non-atomic modifications. If you can guarantee queries never interrupt the modification – e.g. the concurrency is strictly between CPUs – you most likely do not need this.

Where the traditional RCU/lockless data structures rely on atomic modifications to ensure queries observe either the old or the new state the latch allows the same for non-atomic updates. The trade-off is doubling the cost of storage; we have to maintain two copies of the entire data structure.

Very simply put: we first modify one copy and then the other. This ensures there is always one copy in a stable state, ready to give us an answer.

The basic form is a data structure like:

struct latch_struct {
        seqcount_latch_t        seq;
        struct data_struct      data[2];
};

Where a modification, which is assumed to be externally serialized, does the following:

void latch_modify(struct latch_struct *latch, ...)
{
        smp_wmb();      // Ensure that the last data[1] update is visible
        latch->seq.sequence++;
        smp_wmb();      // Ensure that the seqcount update is visible

        modify(latch->data[0], ...);

        smp_wmb();      // Ensure that the data[0] update is visible
        latch->seq.sequence++;
        smp_wmb();      // Ensure that the seqcount update is visible

        modify(latch->data[1], ...);
}

The query will have a form like:

struct entry *latch_query(struct latch_struct *latch, ...)
{
        struct entry *entry;
        unsigned seq, idx;

        do {
                seq = raw_read_seqcount_latch(&latch->seq);

                idx = seq & 0x01;
                entry = data_query(latch->data[idx], ...);

        // This includes needed smp_rmb()
        } while (read_seqcount_latch_retry(&latch->seq, seq));

        return entry;
}

So during the modification, queries are first redirected to data[1]. Then we modify data[0]. When that is complete, we redirect queries back to data[0] and we can modify data[1].

NOTE2:

When data is a dynamic data structure; one should use regular RCU patterns to manage the lifetimes of the objects within.

NOTE

The non-requirement for atomic modifications does _NOT_ include the publishing of new entries in the case where data is a dynamic data structure.

An iteration might start in data[0] and get suspended long enough to miss an entire modification sequence, once it resumes it might observe the new entry.

seqlock_init

seqlock_init (sl)

dynamic initializer for seqlock_t

Parameters

sl

Pointer to the seqlock_t instance

unsigned read_seqbegin(const seqlock_t *sl)

start a seqlock_t read side critical section

Parameters

const seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

Return

count, to be passed to read_seqretry()

unsigned read_seqretry(const seqlock_t *sl, unsigned start)

end a seqlock_t read side section

Parameters

const seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

unsigned start

count, from read_seqbegin()

Description

read_seqretry closes the read side critical section of given seqlock_t. If the critical section was invalid, it must be ignored (and typically retried).

Return

true if a read section retry is required, else false

void write_seqlock(seqlock_t *sl)

start a seqlock_t write side critical section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

Description

write_seqlock opens a write side critical section for the given seqlock_t. It also implicitly acquires the spinlock_t embedded inside that sequential lock. All seqlock_t write side sections are thus automatically serialized and non-preemptible.

Context

if the seqlock_t read section, or other write side critical sections, can be invoked from hardirq or softirq contexts, use the _irqsave or _bh variants of this function instead.

void write_sequnlock(seqlock_t *sl)

end a seqlock_t write side critical section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

Description

write_sequnlock closes the (serialized and non-preemptible) write side critical section of given seqlock_t.

void write_seqlock_bh(seqlock_t *sl)

start a softirqs-disabled seqlock_t write section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

Description

_bh variant of write_seqlock(). Use only if the read side section, or other write side sections, can be invoked from softirq contexts.

void write_sequnlock_bh(seqlock_t *sl)

end a softirqs-disabled seqlock_t write section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

Description

write_sequnlock_bh closes the serialized, non-preemptible, and softirqs-disabled, seqlock_t write side critical section opened with write_seqlock_bh().

void write_seqlock_irq(seqlock_t *sl)

start a non-interruptible seqlock_t write section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

Description

_irq variant of write_seqlock(). Use only if the read side section, or other write sections, can be invoked from hardirq contexts.

void write_sequnlock_irq(seqlock_t *sl)

end a non-interruptible seqlock_t write section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

Description

write_sequnlock_irq closes the serialized and non-interruptible seqlock_t write side section opened with write_seqlock_irq().

write_seqlock_irqsave

write_seqlock_irqsave (lock, flags)

start a non-interruptible seqlock_t write section

Parameters

lock

Pointer to seqlock_t

flags

Stack-allocated storage for saving caller’s local interrupt state, to be passed to write_sequnlock_irqrestore().

Description

_irqsave variant of write_seqlock(). Use it only if the read side section, or other write sections, can be invoked from hardirq context.

void write_sequnlock_irqrestore(seqlock_t *sl, unsigned long flags)

end non-interruptible seqlock_t write section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

unsigned long flags

Caller’s saved interrupt state, from write_seqlock_irqsave()

Description

write_sequnlock_irqrestore closes the serialized and non-interruptible seqlock_t write section previously opened with write_seqlock_irqsave().

void read_seqlock_excl(seqlock_t *sl)

begin a seqlock_t locking reader section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

Description

read_seqlock_excl opens a seqlock_t locking reader critical section. A locking reader exclusively locks out both other writers and other locking readers, but it does not update the embedded sequence number.

Locking readers act like a normal spin_lock()/spin_unlock().

The opened read section must be closed with read_sequnlock_excl().

Context

if the seqlock_t write section, or other read sections, can be invoked from hardirq or softirq contexts, use the _irqsave or _bh variant of this function instead.

void read_sequnlock_excl(seqlock_t *sl)

end a seqlock_t locking reader critical section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

void read_seqlock_excl_bh(seqlock_t *sl)

start a seqlock_t locking reader section with softirqs disabled

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

Description

_bh variant of read_seqlock_excl(). Use this variant only if the seqlock_t write side section, or other read sections, can be invoked from softirq contexts.

void read_sequnlock_excl_bh(seqlock_t *sl)

stop a seqlock_t softirq-disabled locking reader section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

void read_seqlock_excl_irq(seqlock_t *sl)

start a non-interruptible seqlock_t locking reader section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

Description

_irq variant of read_seqlock_excl(). Use this only if the seqlock_t write side section, or other read sections, can be invoked from a hardirq context.

void read_sequnlock_excl_irq(seqlock_t *sl)

end an interrupts-disabled seqlock_t locking reader section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

read_seqlock_excl_irqsave

read_seqlock_excl_irqsave (lock, flags)

start a non-interruptible seqlock_t locking reader section

Parameters

lock

Pointer to seqlock_t

flags

Stack-allocated storage for saving caller’s local interrupt state, to be passed to read_sequnlock_excl_irqrestore().

Description

_irqsave variant of read_seqlock_excl(). Use this only if the seqlock_t write side section, or other read sections, can be invoked from a hardirq context.

void read_sequnlock_excl_irqrestore(seqlock_t *sl, unsigned long flags)

end non-interruptible seqlock_t locking reader section

Parameters

seqlock_t *sl

Pointer to seqlock_t

unsigned long flags

Caller saved interrupt state, from read_seqlock_excl_irqsave()

void read_seqbegin_or_lock(seqlock_t *lock, int *seq)

begin a seqlock_t lockless or locking reader

Parameters

seqlock_t *lock

Pointer to seqlock_t

int *seq

Marker and return parameter. If the passed value is even, the reader will become a lockless seqlock_t reader as in read_seqbegin(). If the passed value is odd, the reader will become a locking reader as in read_seqlock_excl(). In the first call to this function, the caller must initialize and pass an even value to seq; this way, a lockless read can be optimistically tried first.

Description

read_seqbegin_or_lock is an API designed to optimistically try a normal lockless seqlock_t read section first. If an odd counter is found, the lockless read trial has failed, and the next read iteration transforms itself into a full seqlock_t locking reader.

This is typically used to avoid seqlock_t lockless readers starvation (too much retry loops) in the case of a sharp spike in write side activity.

Check Sequence counters and sequential locks for template example code.

Context

if the seqlock_t write section, or other read sections, can be invoked from hardirq or softirq contexts, use the _irqsave or _bh variant of this function instead.

Return

the encountered sequence counter value, through the seq parameter, which is overloaded as a return parameter. This returned value must be checked with need_seqretry(). If the read section need to be retried, this returned value must also be passed as the seq parameter of the next read_seqbegin_or_lock() iteration.

int need_seqretry(seqlock_t *lock, int seq)

validate seqlock_t “locking or lockless” read section

Parameters

seqlock_t *lock

Pointer to seqlock_t

int seq

sequence count, from read_seqbegin_or_lock()

Return

true if a read section retry is required, false otherwise

void done_seqretry(seqlock_t *lock, int seq)

end seqlock_t “locking or lockless” reader section

Parameters

seqlock_t *lock

Pointer to seqlock_t

int seq

count, from read_seqbegin_or_lock()

Description

done_seqretry finishes the seqlock_t read side critical section started with read_seqbegin_or_lock() and validated by need_seqretry().

unsigned long read_seqbegin_or_lock_irqsave(seqlock_t *lock, int *seq)

begin a seqlock_t lockless reader, or a non-interruptible locking reader

Parameters

seqlock_t *lock

Pointer to seqlock_t

int *seq

Marker and return parameter. Check read_seqbegin_or_lock().

Description

This is the _irqsave variant of read_seqbegin_or_lock(). Use it only if the seqlock_t write section, or other read sections, can be invoked from hardirq context.

Note

Interrupts will be disabled only for “locking reader” mode.

Return

  1. The saved local interrupts state in case of a locking reader, to be passed to done_seqretry_irqrestore().

  2. The encountered sequence counter value, returned through seq overloaded as a return parameter. Check read_seqbegin_or_lock().

void done_seqretry_irqrestore(seqlock_t *lock, int seq, unsigned long flags)

end a seqlock_t lockless reader, or a non-interruptible locking reader section

Parameters

seqlock_t *lock

Pointer to seqlock_t

int seq

Count, from read_seqbegin_or_lock_irqsave()

unsigned long flags

Caller’s saved local interrupt state in case of a locking reader, also from read_seqbegin_or_lock_irqsave()

Description

This is the _irqrestore variant of done_seqretry(). The read section must’ve been opened with read_seqbegin_or_lock_irqsave(), and validated by need_seqretry().